Globalization, development of information technologies, widespread and global use of the Internet simplify the activities in almost all spheres of society’s life and fully meet the needs of mankind in communication. IT-achievements have become an integral part of our daily lives. Despite the fact that in the era of globalization, the use of information technology has become customary to be in the same contact environment with the world, such results are the result of complex and interesting work on the creation of global IT-communication. One of them is adaptation of product to the market. An important deal in this area is the adaptation of product in a certain geographical, cultural and linguistic area (localization). Although there are many marketing researches, different strategies and views in this regard, the principle of "Think Globally, Act Locally" has now played a leading role in transnational corporations. As a rule, any global product adapts to local features saving the basic activity. However, in the course of productive "acclimatization" translators have to adapt them and explain the lexical meaning, look for an alternative, as in most cases there is no direct translation of some content in the original language (in our case in the Kazakh language). As a result of adaptation of such content, search of alternative new concepts, interpretations, names of the phenomena are penetrated in our language. There are many neologisms that enrich the lexical composition of the language among them.

Changes in the ХХІ century based on Kazakhstan's rapidly changing socio-political, cultural and social life have made "neological explosion" in the Kazakh language, including communication on the Internet. This, of course, had a huge impact word creation in the above social networks. However, conduction of these "explosion" products through linguistic mental knowledge, scientific and theoretical research, as well as standardization and coding of language updates it is observed that the process of natural neologization/neologism in a language does not cope with itself. In addition, due to the vulnerability of the accessibility of normative, reference lexicographical



Neologism is understood as a process of complex renewal through introductory words, new names and new meanings of borrowed words in the lexical-semantic system of the national language.


works of various formats, some coded neologisms included in the normative dictionary cannot be equally familiar to the public.  

Innovations that reflect all the stylistic, genre functions of the language are the "herald" of news and changes in society. Therefore, their research allows us to “sculpt” appearance of “original figure” of this era. For example, in the modern Kazakh language the word "modernization" as a noble linguistic form under the influence of N.A. Nazarbayev's word creation in the language field of political and public discourse acquired a new meaning: 1) economic, political and spiritual revival, renovation, renewal and reform of society, public consciousness; 2) a set of targeted, systemic special measures of state policy and ideology to implement these reforms.

Before having a new meaning, the word "modernization" has a universal meaning as "changes, exchange, renewal" in the normative dictionary. As a result of the development of virtual communication types (Facebook), platforms for discussion of political, cultural contents (TV and radio programs, "Basqosu" Kazakh language teaching, such civil initiatives as "Kobylandy zhatka!" volunteering courses), business communications (Start-business project of NCE of RK "Atameken" for the development of small and medium-sized businesses in the regions), Internet resources in the state language (Kitap.kz, Bilim-Lang, Qascontent, Literature portal, etc.) a base of large language updates, which have not yet been very critical for linguistics, were not the object of linguistic research has formed in the society. In our future research, it is expected to use such data and previously collected data, that is, the digitized text base of the national corpus of the Kazakh language in the amount of 30 million uses of words developed by the Institute of Language Education named after A. Baitursynuly as a source of detection of neologisms.

And the object of research, based on this article, has a large audience in Kazakhstan Vkontakte (vk.com) and the language content of the social network Facebook will also be considered.

Quantitative analysis. Before considering the language content of users of these social networks, it is necessary to determine the place in Internet communications in Kazakhstan, depending on the number of its users, that is, statistics. For example, Vkontakte social network from the side of traffic is the #3 site on the rating of Alexa service, which monitors Internet sites in .kz segment. And it is in the #17 place throughout the world. Also, according to Alexa’s information 3,2% traffic of Vkontakte social network comes from Kazakhstan. According to Alexa Facebook is in the #3 place throughout the world and from the side of traffic is the #28 site in Kaznet.     


Vkontakte (vk.com) social network. According to the data, 12 121 000 accounts were registered from Kazakhstan in Vkontakte from the age of 14 to +65 years. Among them 6 048 000 (50%) are males, 6 049 000 (50%) are women. More information can be found in 1-infographics.



According to Alexa’s information about Vkontakte, Kazakhstan ranks fifth among the countries using the social network after Russia, Germany, the Netherlands, the USA. However, there is one fact should be noted. Ukraine has officially blocked the social network on its territory for political reasons and traffic from Ukraine via VPN abroad (Netherlands, Germany, USA, etc.).b.) considering the fact that going through the IP address, the de facto Kazakhstan's users are a third of a large audience, consuming Vkontakte network. Also, Kazakhstan's users make up 3.6% of the total number of consumers of this social network. The user interface of Vkontakte was translated to the Kazakh language in 2008-2009. You can use the Kazakh version of the site from web and mobile devices (Android, IOS, WP). Based on the monitoring in April 2018 number of users in Vkontakte network was 20 largest numbers of users.   

- 12 Kazakh;

- 7 Russian;

- 1 Kazakh/Russian mixed. Even the exact information about the Kazakh-speaking users is not provided in Vkontakte social network, the above indirect data can measure the share of the Kazakh-speaking audience.


Facebook social network. According to the data, 6 600 000 accounts were registered from Kazakhstan in Facebook from the age of 14 to +65 years. Among them 3 036 000 (46%) are males, 3 564 000 (54%) are women. Due to the fact that the opportunities of Facebook advertising media are wide and versatile, there are more opportunities to observe the Kazakh-speaking audience. Out of 6 600 000 Kazakhstan accounts, the social network is used by a total of 837 000 people in the Kazakh language. 352 000 (42%) of them are males, 485 000 (58%) of them are women. More information can be found in 2-infographics.


Facebook audience of Kazakhstan is 0.5 percent of the total daily audience of the social network. The share of Kazakh-speaking audience is 0.49% of the total daily audience of the network or 12.6% of Kazakhstan accounts. Considering that only the web version of Facebook began to be translated into Kazakh 4-5 years ago, currently the user interface is translated into Kazakh and has not yet been released on the Kazakh mobile version, more than 800 000 users are good indicative. According to information by Socialbakers service in April 2018, when monitoring the content of the 20 largest pages by number of users of the social network in .kz segment, it was found that: 13 pages conduct their work in Russian; only 2 in English; 2 in Russian and English mixed; 1 in Kazakh/Russian; 1 in Kazakh, Russian, English mixed; only 1 conducts its work in Kazakh. 

Summing up Vkontakte and Facebook are considered to be a social network with similar external features, although the functionality is similar, the internal structure, work, policy management of personal data of users, etc. in terms of aspects, it was observed that they are two different structures. This, in turn, affects the quantitative and qualitative indicators of the audience of the two social networks, policy and content creation requirements. For example, if the main audience of Vkontakte in Kazakhstan is students and young people aged 18-34 years, young people and middle generation representatives aged 25-44 years are in Facebook. In Vkontakte, most network users are guided by entertainment, reflection (movies, music, online games, hobbies, etc.) consume most of the content, and Facebook audience often consumes business, social, educational content. As well as Facebook also has an economically active audience, this network is the most important platform for action in terms of marketing for companies, commercial organizations and banks, the core of information campaigns. In accordance with world standards, the interface the user and the content of Facebook, you can collect a word usage and language updates created by our linguists in the virtual space, by translation and adaptation from the source language into the Kazakh and filtering of the linguistic content of communication in Facebook. Since the qualitative audience for intellectual potential is in this network, there are a large number of neologisms, including new terms, among the linguistic novelty. Currently, among the owners of this social network, creative language personalities make a huge contribution to the development and enrichment of the lexical composition of the language with their creativity.

Vkontakte and Facebook social networks are reputable platform that promotes the growth of the Kazakh-speaking info sphere. This process is a process of forming the age characteristics of the audience, values, interests, environment, views, knowledge, etc. according to the requirements and needs. This phenomenon is an expression in the language consciousness, an indicator of quantitative and qualitative changes in society. In turn, these indicators are one of the most important markers of language development. Because language grows, develops, transforms only in the environment in which there is a consumer.

Qualitative analysis. Thus, depending on the age-related nature of consumers of the two most common social networks, word usage, typical for teenagers, slang is especially common in Vkontakte network, and the area of the new vocabulary can become a Facebook with high intellectual potential. Therefore, in the proposed primary research, along with the quantitative nature of both consumers, we want to conduct a qualitative analysis of the language updates of the latter that is, Facebook network users, to show lexical and partial semantic neologisms within them. For this purpose, language updates2 were collected from the texts of Facebook users' posts in the period from January to March 2018. Posts of authoritative Facebook communicators from the side of popularity between the language person and the network (network user) were taken. 

Following active persons, who are known both in the modern social network and in the media space, who exercise their professional competence in various spheres of public life to cover a variety of discourse in network communications, were chosen: Aidos Sarym (political scientist), Asylkhan Mamashuly (journalist), Zhanat Askerbekkyzy (poet), Mukhametzhan Tazabek (head of religious TV channel), Mukhiddin Isa (religious scholar, Islamic scholar), Kazybek Isa (society activist), Orken Kenzhebek (blogger-journalist), Nurlan Zhanay (it specialist, blogger) were selected. We note that due to the fact that the first stage of the research, the list of networks communicators is limited, and in the future their number will increase, and the volume of their texts will increase.


2Here, the language update means all lexical (partially semantic) language units that are present in the text of language proficiency, but are not registered in the regulatory dictionaries. There are new concept, idea, marked name of the phenomenon in accordance with the norms of the literary language, new terms, author's (occasional) application, barbarism, slangs, unfamiliar onim names, some familiar onim names, foreign words mastered by oral speech, changed spelling words etc.


It should be noted here that even many words are derived from the text of individual network users, neologisms in the modern language of virtual space, "fashion" words, that is, words that are often used, that is, their author is unknown, and the author is known, that is, the words peculiar only to the author of the text on this object of research, some were indicated as an occasional.

Innovative words have been classified on three channels as literary, extra-literary and intermediate language applications. You can enter the literary language applications in regulatory dictionaries and require strict observance as the standardized vocabulary. It is necessary to be attentive with extra-literary new applications, as they may not be understood by all members of the linguistic and cultural community, but may occur among them, even if there are rare ones that gain popularity and are often used. And the research does not apply to any of the two channels, which are mentioned conditionally in the "intermediate application", or to those that have not yet established the status of vocabulary, which are characteristic of either the literary norm, or extra-literary applications should be determined by external motive circumstances and time.

І Literary language applications:

- «fashion» words: дресс-код (sample of clothes), молдавуд (film industry of Moldova), тренд, фэйслифтинг (face skin tightening to avoid wrinkles), глоссарий  (dictionary), диджитал (video advertising), диджиталдану/диджитализация;

- brand names: самсунг, фейсбук, инстаграмм, бмв, вконтакте, нексия, ранджровер, твиттер, гугл, ютуб, адидас, Дукати, Еуровидение, мессенджер, Реутерс, Реал, уатсап, вк (short name of Vkontakte social network);

- new onomastic names: ратель (name of media in Kazakhstan), Кар-сити (the name of auto spare parts market), ламифарен (he name of a popular biologically active additives), Шымкент-шоу, Қазақпарат, Қазақтелеком, Самұрық-қазына;

- words that are new concept, idea, name of the phenomenon – neologisms: селфи, спам, айфон, голливудтықтар, ділдік, е-калькулятор, кофехана, таксиші, үштілділік, аккаунт, англосаксонша, девальвациялану, ескінемісше, ескіскандинавша, флешмоб, әліпбисымақ, авторсымақ, кофталы, бизнесмен, видеоинженер, гүленші (Fethullah Gulen supporters), коммент, седан, смартфон, теледебат, грифон, хабарластық, бақыттылық, бөлушілік, ағымшылдық, алаштық, тойлағыш, көппәтерлі, қысқаметражды, мәжбүрлі, толықметражды, шаншарлық (actor of Shanshar theatre), конвертерле, ақжолдық (representative of Akzhol party), әлеуметшілдік, бейнежауап, қаранарлық (figuratively), транскомпания, хакерлік, стильдеу, рысқұлбековтанушы, паркинг, виртуал, ойтолғақ, панель, портал, фотоанализ, бейнемәлімдеме, бейнеплатформа, жылжабар (result the year), кинотарих, қаншарап (about red colour), спойлер, медиаорда, наркобарон, пиар, продюсер, слоган,  стенографистика, супермаман, тальго, тараздық, фотоқұмарлық, фотосессия, хаммам, чартер, инклюзивті, крипторхизм, қорқорлат,  аккаунт, афроамерикалық, видеосабақ, ирландық, сәләфизм, сириялық, скриншот, цифрландыру, блог, блогер, блокчейн, браузер, домен, видеоблогер, видеоблог,  гаджет,   монстр, онлайн, опцион, оффлайн, пиар, пост, репост, социум, тренинг, фейк, фоллоуер, форум, шоумен, экожүйе, экотрагедия, посткеңестік, супер, мобильді, отшашар, универсиада.

- new abbreviated words: мемқызмет, мемемтихан, мемтіл,  әлеужелі (social network), жолпол, ЖСДП,  соцпартия, Қазмедиа;

- words that received new additional semantics: астаналық (in the meaning of resident of Astana, not capital), ашынғандар (in the meaning of disgruntled  social group), контакт (in the meaning of the contact sides in virtual communication), бұрымсыз (short hair), сорқұдық (use of poetic image), бірегейлік (the term in a meaning of social and humanitarian sphere that a member of a social group identifies with the same sociology.), елжандылық, шалақазақ (Kazakh of the second, third generation is from family where one of the parents is another nationality, who broke the connection with native language), ұяттылық (amplify “will be shameful” in a negative meaning), парақша (in a terminological meaning related to the virtual communication), сұраным (offer to make friends in the social networks), цифрлан,цифрландыр (related to digital technologies), арабтан (blindly imitate to Arab people in a negative meaning), зомби (Internet addiction in a negative meaning), жанкешті (religious fanatic in a negative meaning), толерантты (in a meaning of mass tolerance to changes inherent in the Kazakh culture);

- new paired words: байланыс-орталық, жиын-хабар, инвестициялық-өндірістік, сауап-табыс, рухани-ағартушылық, қабілет-қарым, өмір-салт, өнеге-дәстүр, ақын-журналист, әнші-сазгер, пікір-ұстаным, саясаткер-кәсіпкер, әдеби-мәдени, мәдени-әдеби, ашылып-ақтарыл, бауыр-бүйрек, дүкен-сүкен (style of speech), бизнес-форум, ар-ождандық, жол-көлік, колл-орталық, қияр-сәбіз, процессор-жады, реалити-шоу, секонд-хэнд, семинар-тренинг, интернет-дүкен, мастер-класс, онлайн-күнделік, интернет-трафик, бизнес-коучер;

- special (term) words that were familiar with narrow operating, small groups of specialists, but were widely used in connection with modern trends and became popular among the general population: апостроф, алгоритм, диграф, иероглиф, латын, кирил, дифтонг, орфография, орфоэпия, фонетика;

- newly revived religious vocabulary in ancient books: милади (the Christian year count), османлы, фәтуа, хижри, бейнамаз, әлімсақтық, ғайбатшылдық, жамағатшылық, кәпіршілдік, қарилық, мисуәк, ақида.


ІІ Extra-literary applications


- barbarisms: звонда, кузов (must be body), запонкала, айтишник, зарядка, розетка, подписчик, индивидуалист.

- direct speech that incorrectly changed by effort of oral speech orfogramm: тЫмаурат (vision of saying in writing under the influence of lip narrow Ұ vowel sound to neighboring non-labialized narrow Ы), ассалоу, жәйлі, қағылез, әппағым;

- Russian name of some household items, Russian slangs in extra-literary applications: крузак, блатной, аварийка, понт, сотка, прикол;

- slang/jargon words: зың, сындыр, легалда.


ІІІ Intermediate new applications

- occasional words: мемастау (state dish, the author is Aidos Sarym), трампылда ("Trump", make a fuss as "Trump", the author is Aidos Sarym – hereinafter A.S.), шал-ардагер (А.С.), антимагомаев (А.С.), Газдандырылғандықтарыңызбен! (interjection of humorous congratulatory with access to the gas pipeline, the author is A.S.), үтірица (humorous name of the project of the Kazakh alphabet in Latin, developed by means of apostrophes, the author is A.S.), көбелек-күн (figurative poetic application, the author is Zhanat Askerbekkyzy - hereinafter Zh.A.), бөрі-ана (Ж.Ә), жібек-меруерт (Ж.Ә.), қар-көйлек (Ж.Ә.), сағым-қыр (Ж.Ә), аруана-жас (Ж.Ә), әз-арман (Ж.Ә.), бал-саумал (Ж.Ә.), ғұмыр-елік (Ж.Ә.), жан-қалып (Ж.Ә.), жүрек-әлем (Ж.Ә.), жүрек-жұрт (Ж.Ә.), қараша-күн (Ж.Ә.), қараша-өмір (Ж.Ә.), қызғаныш-қылыш (Ж.Ә.), мұң-дала (Ж.Ә.), мұң-өмір (Ж.Ә.), өмір-толқын (Ж.Ә.), сыр-көмбе (Ж.Ә.), тас-тәні (Ж.Ә.), тұман-көйлек (Ж.Ә.), тұман-теңіз (Ж.Ә.), уақыт-жел (Ж.Ә.), үр-дүния (Ж.Ә.), үр-шағым (Ж.Ә.), шер-шеме (Ж.Ә.), шөл-дем (Ж.Ә.), шілде-жаз (Ж.Ә.), Жарлығаш (name of a boy consonant to Karlygash, the author is Orken Kenzhebek – hereinafter O.K.), желқыз (unpleasant - Ө.К.), көтталақ (rude – Ө.К.)

- copyright (occasional) new grammar application and new correct orfogramms: субъектив (not subjective), электравтобус (not electric bus), электркөлік, электрмобиль, Бейжің (not Beijing), Шынжаң (not Xinjiang), процес (not process), қарашаңырақ (not separated figuratively, better to appear together)

- names of new concepts, the orthogram of which has not yet stabilized: бренд/брэнд

- foreign words verbally assimilated in oral speech: пішінәй (печенье - biscuit), сәбет (совет - advice), ыспокойны (спокойный - calm), бәлшебек (большевик - bolshevik), диуан (диван - sofa), популис (популист - populist), сиез (съезд - congress), шорти (шорты - shorts),обшым (в общем – in general), әбшение (общение - communication), кірәсіпшік (красавчик - handsome), мәләдес (молодец - attaboy), рекомендеймін (рекомендую – I recommend), сериозный (серьезный - serious), түрси (трусы - pants), бақабит (уақабшы - wahhabist), алқоритім (алгоритм - algorithm),  минөт (минут - minute), хайып (хайп - hype), аутоматты (автоматты - automatic);

- orfogramms issued according to the pattern of pronunciation in English, even if they assimilated through Russian: оппозишн (оппозиция - opposition), мотивейшн (мотивация - motivation), прожект (проект - project).

Summing up different trends are observed in the language use of network users in Kazakh social networks. Among them, there is certainly usefulness in modernization of our language in accordance with modern requirements, as well as there are "curve" applications that reduce the language culture, which have not become equally popular for the entire linguistic and cultural community. We think that on this new communication platform linguists should always pay attention to the linguistic units, the new meaning, the ongoing processes. Because the time shows that global communication does not expand if it does not reduce in the virtual space. Therefore, on the one hand, if it is necessary to sort, codify and normalize the units that enrich the lexical and semantic fund of our language on this platform, on the other hand, it is also useful to recognize types of extra-literary applications in order to improve the culture of language proficiency. 



(Institute of Language Education

named after A. Baitursynuly

leading scientist, c.p.s.)



(Institute of Language Education

named after A. Baitursynuly


Master of philology)

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